Presenting a Comprehensive Mathematical Programming Model for an Integrated Production–Distribution Planning in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of Industrial Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Planning for production, distribution, collection, and recovery of used products plays an important role in reducing environmental burdens of different industries. To this aim, many researchers have developed efficient mathematical models for planning forward and reverse supply chains. Most of the presented models have covered strategic planning in forward and reverse supply chains in this area, and have rarely addressed the mid- and short-run programming. In this paper, a comprehensive integrated mathematical programming model is developed for production and distribution planning in a closed-loop supply chain. In the proposed model, the customers are categorized into three groups including new product customers, recovered product customers, and raw material customers. Due to the economy of scale principal, hybrid production/recovery centers and hybrid distribution/redistribution centers are considered rather than separate facilities. The acquired results show the ability of the proposed model to production and distribution programming in a closed-loop supply chain.


Main Subjects

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